- Normal : A bone BMD is considered normal if the T-score is within 1 standard deviation of the normal young adult value. T-score between 0 and -1 is considered a normal result.
- Low Bone Mass (Osteopenia) : A BMD defines osteopenia as a T-Score between -1 and -2.5. This indicates an increased fracture risk.
- Osteoporosis : A BMD greater than 2.5 standard deviations from the normal identify osteoporosis.
The following are risk factors for low bone density :
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Low Body Weight
- Parent with a Hip Fracture
- Individuals with Vertebral Abnormalities
- Long-Term Glucocorticoid (Steroid) Therapy
- Primary Hyperparathyroidism
- History of Eating Disorders
- Thyroid Disease
- Excessive Caffeine Consumption